Wildlife development infers to the undertakings in the protected areas (Game Reserves, Game Controlled Areas and Ramsar Sites) that supports conservation, utilization and protection of wildlife resources. The activities include conducting wildlife census, quota setting, fire management, diseases control, wildlife habitat manipulation and construction road networks, airstrips, accommodation to support conservation and tourism activities.
Wildlife census are carried out purposely to assess the status and trends of wildlife populations to support informed decision making such as quota settings, strengthening of laws enforcement and ecological monitoring. For example, census for large mammals were conducted in the year 2014, 2015 and 2018 in different ecosystem to understand population changes. Census also helps to know the factors causing population dynamics of wildlife species in question of which might be due poaching, diseases, drought and encroachment.
Wild animals had coexisted with disease causing agents throughout their time. This coexistence has tremendously boosted their immunity and therefore made them carriers of pathogens. The authority strives to controls the spread of these diseases from the wildlife to the domestic animals and perhaps to human being. This is conducted in variety of ways including using of designated holding grounds to monitor wild animals which are to be transported from one place to another. Usually, this is done on the specified period of time and under an intensive care of the wildlife and veterinary expert. Furthermore, the authority in collaboration with wildlife research institutes take measures and immediate actions to monitor and control the spread of any diseases outbreak that might have an impact to both human and wildlife. For example the authority controls tsetse fly to reduce transmission of sleeping sickness and nuisance to the tourist in Protected Areas.
One of the difficult moments to wildlife is during the hard environmental situations. These are especially during excessive drought seasons. These seasons’ results to the degraded habitats, lack of food and water to support life, disease outbreak and break of uncontrolled fires. Sometimes this harshness beyond human control. However, in some conditions habitat manipulation is vital in our Protected Areas. The Authority has from time to time constructed dams to provide water for wildlife during the dry season. It has also been using fire as the tool to control unwanted fires, reduce biomass risky for heavy fires, and control of Tsetse flies.
Fire management is the important tool in habitat management. It has been used in reducing biomass that would in excessive and with erroneous introduced fires would cause serious fire catastrophes in the Protected Areas that would not only affect wildlife habitats but also may claim innocent wild lives. It also makes fresh forage to wildlife during early burning and increases wildlife visibility for both photographic and hunting tourism. This is timely and scientifically practiced in the Game Reserves and other wildlife areas to ensure sustainable wildlife management is attained. In some cases, after unplanned firebreaks, wildlife rangers together with community’s works together to suppress it in order to safeguard human and wild lives together with properties. Fire also is used to activate germination of the most species of the Miombo Woodlands in the Selous Game Reserve and in most Miombo Woodlands. While its illegal to cause unplanned fires in the protected Areas, the authority strives to control these unplanned fires at any costs.
TAWA believes that conservation of wildlife should be for the benefit of communities and neither expenses to their lives nor properties. In respect to that, TAWA deploying rangers and wildlife officers from its respective stations (Zonal Anti-poaching units, Game Reserves, Game Controlled Area and Malihai Clubs of Tanzania) to manage Human Wildlife Conflicts (HWC) in the community areas. The Authority applies different methods in management of HWC that include patrols to control problem or dangerous animals in defense of human life and properties as well as awareness raising campaign on the best practices to minimize HWC. TAWA collaborates with other key stakeholders in management of HWC that include Wildlife Division under Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism, Tanzania National Parks (TANAPA), Ngorongoro Conservation Area Authority (NCAA), Tanzania Wildlife Research Institute (TAWIRI) Regional Administrations and Local Governments, Non-Governmental Organizations and Local Communities.